For women of childbearing age who are diagnosed with Uterine Fibroids, a common concern is how fibroids will impact their fertility. Fortunately, the incidence of infertility occurring as a direct result of fibroids is low. While research has shown that that approximately 5-10% of infertile women have one or more fibroids, the fibroids can only be identified as the single cause of infertility in 2-3% of those cases.
When fibroids do impact a woman’s fertility, they can do so in several possible ways: namely, by impacting the movement of the egg, embryo, or sperm through the woman’s reproductive organs. As fibroids grow in size, they can change the shape of the uterus, push surrounding reproductive organs, and create blockages. Changes in the uterine muscle that are caused by an intramural fibroid can inhibit the movement or implantation of an embryo. If a fibroid blocks the fallopian tubes, it could prevent eggs from moving freely during ovulation. If its positioning results in movement of the cervix, sperm may not be able to successfully move through the cervix to reach the uterus. In any one of these scenarios, the presence of a fibroid can impact a woman’s fertility.
To some extent, the size of the fibroid can make a difference; it is known that fibroids larger than 5 centimeters are more likely to affect the success of in-vitro fertilization (IVF). In addition to creating blockages and displacement of reproductive organs, a fibroid can impair fertility by causing inflammation in the uterine wall and thereby discouraging implantation of an embryo. Moreover, the position of a fibroid could restrict blood flow to the uterine cavity where an embryo would implant.
The bottom line is fibroids can affect fertility and may decrease the chances of success for women undergoing IVF. That said, the mere presence of fibroids does not preclude a woman from becoming pregnant, and if infertility is a problem, it is unlikely that fibroids are the sole cause.
- American Society for Reproductive Medicine, “Fibroids and Fertility Fact Sheet”, Resources, ReproductiveFacts.org: 2011. Retrieved March 16, 2015, from http://www.reproductivefacts.org/FACTSHEET_Fibroids_and_Fertility/
- “Fibroid Tumors.” [Video]. American Society for Reproductive Medicine, 21 Feb. 2012. Retrieved March 14, 2015, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eSJ-ztQ97Og